PTE Listening: Summarize Spoken Text

Sound Receptors
Sound receptors are small devices that are floppy and spiky in the ears. These receptors can translate vibrational energy that hits your eardrum into a vibration of the fluid in your ears. Then the physical motion of these receptors will be translated into electrical signals that go into your ear. MIT students are invited to learn more about sound receptors, who would find
sound receptors remarkable.

Biology, DNA & RNA
Biology provides profound insights into the world around us. All creatures on the earth are similar and exceptionally related to each other. For example, all life forms rely on DNA and RNA to store and transmit their genetic and inherited information, and they are all based on cells which are fundamental building blocks of all organisms. These organisms conduct
metabolism and they also have similar basic chemistry.

Vitamin D
Vitamin D is called the sunshine vitamin because there is no dietary need for vitamin D if you have adequate sunshine. Therefore, vitamin D is not a vitamin but a prohormone. When human beings lived in tropical climates with sufficient skin exposure to sunlight, there was no dietary need for vitamin D. Later, the migration away from equatorial regions created a
dietary need for vitamin D, especially in winter.

Talent War
There is intense competition to hire the most talented people. Now it is not the bosses’ world, but the talent’s world. We have a talent shortage both within countries and between companies. Now countries are trying to lure bright young immigrants to their universities. So, talent is a premium on many levels, which is due to the aging of baby boomers and the more sophisticated economy.

Indian peasants
The debt now is so high for peasants that they cannot pay it back. The debt comes from the seeds which used to be free and the pesticides whose usage has surged due to the free market and globalization. Peasants can only buy expensive seeds and pesticides by borrowing money from the same companies that sell seeds and pesticides.

Government Power Devolution
The devolution is to reduce and move governmental power from the federal to the state level. This philosophical issue divides the Democrats and Republicans. Democrats believe in big government and big entitlement, while the Republicans believe in getting powers down closer to the people and the states. But they are actually moving the power away from people because there’s a hidden part of the power system, the private power.

University competition
Universities have to acknowledge that there is not only a competition for the best students, but also staff in the academic job market, too. Especially when English has become the new Latin, universities in English speaking countries are exposed to more intense competition. We are in a competition for government funding, research contracts, and philanthropy. This
competitive environment is particularly visible to a vice-chancellor.

For thousands of years, people believed that the world was like a flat floor and the universe was absolutely fixed and unchangeable. This view was transformed by Einstein in the 20th century who suggested that the universe is under continuously dynamic change all the time. However, this was just a prediction made by Einstein. The honor of making the discovery of this theory fell to astronomer Edwin Hubble.

Artificial intelligence
Humans used to tell a computer what to do and how to do it. When given the meaning of certain words, computers can operate as programmed and develop systems and symbols. It works by analyzing messages into bytes, which functions similarly to human brains. Since both human brains and computers are symbol processors, computers may have the potential to bring artificial intelligence.

Kids’ Museum Campaign
A mother, a journalist with The Guardian newspaper, wrote an article in the newspaper complaining about her experience of being thrown out of a museum because of her kids shouting in the museum. Surprisingly, she received over 500 emails about the same experience. So, they set up the Kids’ Museums campaign, advocating family-friendly museums.

The Definition of Risk
The lecture on risk analysis focuses on the definition of risk and safety. There are two literal definitions of ‘risk’ in dictionaries. One means the possibility of loss or injury while the other means the consequences of some kinds of danger. Moreover, the definition of ‘safe’ or ‘safety’ means being free from harm, which is a simple notion of being either safe or not safe.

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